12.10.19

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Pagadian City

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Pagadian City Hall

 Pagadian City, is a 2nd class city and the capital of the province of Zamboanga del Sur, Philippines. It is the regional center of Zamboanga Peninsula and the second-largest city in the region, after the independent city of Zamboanga. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 199,060 people.

Pagadian began as stop-over for traders who plied the road between the old Spanish fort-town of Zamboanga on the southwestern tip of the Zamboanga Peninsula and other bigger towns to the north of the old Zamboanga Province. Except to its sheltered bay and good fishing grounds, it was not a promising site for the foundation of a city, because it is situated on steeply rolling terrain. In the course of its local history, waves of different kinds of people came to stay, and eventually called among themselves "Pagadianons".

The iconic symbol of Pagadian is its uniquely designed tricycle built to adopt to the city's hilly terrain. It is the only place in the Philippines with a public transport inclined at about 25-40° angle



HISTORY


Origin of the name
The city proper and surrounding areas of today's barangays of Muricay, Tawagan Sur and White Beach was originally named Talapukan, an indigenous word that means "a place of numerous springs." The officially accepted origin of its name are words taken from the Iranun language, pagad ("to wait") and padian ("market") which shows that Pagadian had been a trading area in the past. Other theories suggest that it was named after a bird that the native inhabitants call gagadian or that the city's name came from the word pangadyi ("prayer"), later to be known as pangadyian ("a place to pray" or "land of prayers"). The name Pagadian is also speculated to be derived from the Subanen word pengadian which means "school".

Early settlers
The native inhabitants in the area were the Lumads, specifically Subanens. Then came Muslim settlers who converted the people to Islam. A sizeable number of lumads who refused to be converted eventually settled in the highlands.

The early Bangsamoro were under the leadership of Datu Akob, an Iranun datu whose daughter caught the fancy of Datu Macaumbang (Sultan of Taga Nonok), also an Iranun from Malabang, Tukuran, also part of modern Pagadian. He was the son of Shariff Apo Tubo who descended from the bloodline of Shariff Kabungsuan, the first Sultan of the Maguindanao Sultanate. With the approval of Sultan Datu Akob, Datu Macaumbang married Bai Putri Panyawan Akob, the beautiful daughter of the royal datu of Pagadian City and royal bai putri of Raya.

Upon the death of Datu Akob also known as Datu Mimbalawag, his son-in-law, Datu Macaumbang (Sultan of taga Nonok) assumed leadership; he established the territorial boundaries of the present city proper, from Balangasan River in the west of Tawagan Sur River in the east. Beyond the river of Tawagan Sur was the territory of Datu Balimbingan. At one time, Datu Macaumbang requested the assistance of the Philippine constabulary due to the rampant banditry and piracy in the area. A detachment led by Col. Tiburcio Ballesteros stationed at Malangas landed at the place and stationed themselves at Dumagoc Island. The arrival of the soldiers restored peace and order, thereby attracting the influx of settlers from other places.

Spread of Christianity
Christian settlers started arriving in the early part of the 20th century, most of which came from Cebu as evident on the veneration of the Santo Niño de Cebú. The increasing Christian population prompted the creation of the Parish of Pagadian in 1938 and was administered by the Jesuits, Columban and Filipino priests. The original Sto. Niño Church of Pagadian was right across the city plaza, on the site of the current San Jose Parish church. The present Sto. Niño Cathedral is now located in San Francisco District and was built in 1968.

Pagadian Parish became a diocese on November 2, 1971, and is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Ozamiz. Msgr. Jesus B. Tuquib served as the first bishop and was installed on February 24, 1973. At that time, the Columban Fathers took care of the apostolic services for the first 13 parishes in the newly formed diocese.

As of 2008, the Diocese of Pagadian had 24 parishes.


GEOGRAPHY

Pagadian is on the northeastern side of the Western Mindanao region, bordering on Illana Bay. It is bounded by the municipalities of Tigbao and Dumalinao on the southwest, Lakewood on the west, Labangan on the east and northwest, and Midsalip on the north.

About 45% of the total city area is steeply sloping terrain of hills and mountains on the northwestern portion that covers an estimated 15,090 hectares. Mt. Palpalan, Mt. Timolan, Mt. Pinokis, and Mt. Sugar Loaf are the four tallest peaks. Areas in the direct north and central part, have gentle to moderate slopes, making up 47% of the total. The remaining 8% is level or nearly level which makes up most of the eastern and the southern parts of the city. The urban area covers about 845.48 hectares. Elevation of the urban area of the city ranges from 1 MSL (mean sea level) near Pagadian Bay to about 100 MSL in the area of Barangay San Jose.

The Tiguma, Bulatoc, Gatas, and Balangasan Rivers, drain to Pagadian Bay and serve as natural drainage. Due to its topography, most of the city's 54 barangays do not experience flooding. The low-lying southern and eastern part of the city sometimes experience flooding, most especially during heavy rains.

Climate
Located within the tropics of the northern hemisphere, Pagadian has a pronounced dry season from January to March and rainy season from April to December. The area is generally not affected by tropical storms and typhoons as it is located outside the Philippine Typhoon Belt. Temperature ranges from 22.2 to 32.9 °C (72.0 to 91.2 °F). The prevailing winds are the southwest wind that blow from over the sea during dry seasons going northeast, and the trade winds brought from the mountain ranges. Rainfall distribution is moderate from 2,500 to 3,000 millimetres (98 to 118 in) annually.



DEMOGRAPHICS

The people of Pagadian (Pagadianons) are classified into three (3) main groups which is based primarily on faith and heritage: (a) the Subanens (or any other indigenous tribes who had been living in the area before the advent of Islam in Mindanao), (b) the Muslim (Bangsamoro) settlers who came from other parts of Mindanao and other places such as Sabah and Indonesia, and (c) the Christian settlers who generally came from the Visayas and Luzon.

The majority of Pagadianons speak the Cebuano language. The national language, Filipino (Tagalog) is widely understood and is the native tongue of a small percentage of the population. Iranun, Maguindanao, Maranao, Tausug, and Samal dialects are used by the Muslim community. The Subanen dialect is exclusively used by the Subanen people, the original inhabitants of the area. Remaining percentage of the population are classified as Hiligaynon and Zamboangueño speakers. As with the rest of the Philippines, English is widely understood and is used as the primary language for business.



ECONOMY

Agriculture is the primary economic resource, with the production of rice, corn, coconut, fruit, root crops and animal husbandry. Special funding-assistance programs by the government are made available for local farmers; the City Livelihood Development Assistance Program (CILDAP) extends loans to those who need financial assistance for their livelihood.

Production of raw materials like seaweeds, coco processing, cassava constitute a large part of the local economy; small-scale manufacturing of furniture and decors made out of wood, bamboo, rattan, steel and plastic; handicrafts made out of bamboo, rattan, coco shell, wood, marine shell, ceramics, and weaving.

Pagadian Bay and the outer Illana Bay (Iranun Bay) abound with a wide variety of marine products; seaweed culture farming is flourishing in waters off the bay while fishponds near or along the bay yields milkfish, prawns and crabs. A number of large deep-sea fishing vessels that venture into the Sulu Sea and as far as the South China Sea make Pagadian fishport their base of operation.

Another income-generating industry is mining in an area located 1.5 km southeast of Barangay Lison Valley proper approximately forty-nine kilometers from the city proper which yields gold, copper and molybdenum.



FESTIVALS

The City Fiesta is celebrated every third Sunday of January in honor of its patron saint, the Holy Child Jesus (Sto. Niño) which coincides with the feastday of Cebu City. It is officially called the Pasalamat Festival highlighted with a fluvial parade (regatta), trade exhibits, the Mutya ng Pagadian beauty pageant, carnival shows and a civic military parade. On every 21 June, the Araw ng Pagadian is celebrated in commemoration of its founding as a chartered city; as Capital of Zamboanga del Sur, the city hosts the annual provincial celebration in September with agro-trade exhibits, a civic-military parade, cultural presentations and sports competitions.

The Megayon Festival is a week-long celebration that coincides with the Zamboanga del Sur anniversary in September. It honors the tri-people settlers: the Subanens, BangsaMoro Muslims and Christians. "Megayon" is a Subanen word which means "Unity and Solidarity". The festival is a showcase of three distinctly different cultural heritage in songs, dances, rituals of peace, foods and crafts, to foster unity and understanding among the three cultures. Environment-related activities, peace and development forum, and indigenous sports competitions are being held.

Pagadian City also officially celebrates the Chinese New Year. It honors the local Chinese community.



PLACES OF INTEREST

The Pagadian Rotonda is a circular park at the apex of the F.S. Pajares Avenue and overlooks the Illana Bay. It is at the intersection of the North Diversion Road and F.S. Pajares Avenue, two of the three major road networks in the city (the third one being Rizal Avenue). Dao Dao Islands. The name is shared by two islands within Illana Bay; thus the addition of Dako (big) and Gamay (small) to the names of the islands for simple distinction. "Dao Dao Dako" is the bigger island which is about a hectare and is about 7 to 10‑minute ride by motorboat from the seaport. It has artificial coral reefs made of old tires. "Dao Dao Gamay" is technically not an island, but a sandbar that partially submerges during high tide. Springland Resort is a natural springwater resort, it has three (3) swimming pools and a fishpond and multifunction halls for gatherings. Puting Balas is the literal translation for "white sand" in the local dialect. It is classified as a white sandbar. A number of caves and waterfalls can also be found in remote barangays of the city. The Provincial Government Complex is the civic, sports and cultural center of the Province of Zamboanga del Sur of which Pagadian is the capital. Sports facilities such as a standard-sized oval track and field, standard sized swimming pools and buildings for indoor/outdoor sports as well as a cultural village and the Unity Park, a monument to the Tri-people group (the Lumads, Moslems and Christians) who settled in Pagadian, are located there.


GOVERNANCE

The city belongs to the 1st District of Zamboanga del Sur. The local Sangguniang Panglungsod (City Legislative Council) is administered by the mayor, with the assistance of the vice mayor. It has ten elected councilors and one representative each from the Sangguniang Kabataan (Youth Council) and Association of Barangay Captains (ABC).

Pagadian is also the seat of the Provincial Government of Zamboanga del Sur.



TRANSPORTATION

Tricycles are the primary public transport in the urban center while jeepneys usually ply the city's rural barangays. Private vehicles comprises the largest percentage of the traffic. Buses, minibuses, and jeepneys are the modes of transportation for transients bound for the neighboring municipalities and other parts of Zamboanga del Sur. These short-travel transports also serve the bus terminal which is located downtown.

See also: Pagadian Airport
Airport. The city is served by a Principal Airport Class 1 (or major domestic). It is located in Barangay Muricay and Barangay Tiguma, approximately five (5) kilometers from the city proper. The airport serves as the only air portal in the Province of Zamboanga del Sur with direct flights to and from Manila and Cebu.

Seaport. The port of Pagadian City is served by shipping lines operating for both passenger and cargo vessels. Ports of call include Zamboanga City, Jolo, Siasi, Bongao, Sitangkai and Cotabato City.

Integrated Bus Terminal. Served by two (2) major bus companies and several other smaller Public Utility Vehicles(PUVs), i.e. vans, the terminal sits atop the hill as the station for both Eastbound and Westbound transport particularly for public transports bound for Zamboanga City, Ozamiz City, Dipolog City, Cagayan de Oro, Cotabato City, General Santos City, and Davao City.

Utilities
Telecommunications Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT) and Cruztelco are the two major telecommunications providers. A project under the Department of Transportation and Communications (DOTC), the Pagadian City Telephone Exchange (PACITELEX) serves the far-flung barangays that other telephone companies are not yet able to give service. Major cellular phone service providers in the country serve the city.

Water and power supply Pagadian City Water District (PCWD) provides the city with potable water supply. Formed in 1976, the PCWD has over 14,000 active service connections and sources its water from deep wells and springs.

Electricity is supplied by the Zamboanga del Sur Electric Cooperative, Incorporated (ZAMSURECO I) from the National Power Corporation Hydro-Electric Plant in Iligan City, sourced from the Maria Cristina Falls. About 77.70% or 42 barangays out of 54 total barangays in the entire city area have 24-hr electricity.



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Palayan City

Palayan City Hall
Palayan city is a 5th class city and capital of the province of Nueva Ecija, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 41,041 people,  making it as the most sparsely populated city in the Philippines.


History

On March 25, 1952, leader of Nueva Ecija composed of then Governor Leopoldo Diaz, Congressman Jesus Ilagan, and Board Members Dioscoro de Leon and Antonio Corpuz, Don Felipe Buencamino and all Mayors of Nueva Ecija called a special consultation meeting in Manila to discuss and consider the transfer of the capital of Nueva Ecija from Cabanatuan to other municipality. Several locations and proposals were suggested, specifically Gapan, San Jose, Santa Rosa, Guimba, Talavera, General Tinio, Baloc (present-day Santo Domingo), Muñoz and Government Stock Farm within Laur and Bongabon. After hours of lengthy and conscientious deliberation, it was unanimously agreed that the Government Stock Farm be made as the capitol site.

In 1955, President Ramon Magsaysay declared the portion of the territorial area of the Government Stock Farm as open for settlement as NG-130 pursuant to presidential Proclamation No. 237.

On June 19, 1965, the Congress of the Philippines enacted Republic Act 4475 creating Palayan City as the new capital of Nueva Ecija.[5] While the stock farm is not virtually rice land, "Palayan" was chosen as its name, the province being dubbed as the Rice Granary of the region and the country. Finally, the city government of Palayan was constituted December 5, 1965 with then Governor Eduardo L. Joson as its Ex-Officio Mayor while the Board Members Constituted its first City Council. Meanwhile, Iglesia ni Cristo, under the Administration, bought a large tract of land near Laur and encompasses Palayan City to shelter affected INC members working in Hacienda Luisita which was evicted and voluntarily left the Hacienda in order to prevent bloodshed and violence due to their disbandment on the union.

On August 1969, the city was enlarged by virtue of Republic Act 6052 authored by then Congressman Angel Concepcion which provided for the inclusion of the Military Reservation in Laur and Fort Magsaysay Cantonment area within the municipality of Santa Rosa.

Elpidio O. Cucio was then appointed Mayor with Felipe Bautista as the Vice Mayor. In the subsequent local election, they were elected as first elective local officials including Councilors Flor Agustin, Tranquilino dela Cruz, Antonio Pascual, Federico Dacanay, Luis Lacalle and Thomas Lumawig. The year 1969 also placed Palayan City in the map of national and international scene when it hosted the National Jamboree attended by thousand scouts and even foreign scouts from other countries.

In 1972, by virtue of Proclamation No. 893, portion of the Government Stock Farm was allocated for the displaced population of Pantabangan because of the construction of the dam. The resettlement site was eventually converted into regular barangay known as Marcos Village.

In 1983, the training ground of the Philippine Army was transferred to Fort Magsaysay from Fort Bonifacio in Metro Manila. This paved the way for the development of the reservation area into a training complex to serve the army’s training requirements.

During the historical EDSA Revolution on February 1986, nationwide overhaul of government leaderships from national to local took place. Don Pacifico M. Fajardo was appointed Officer-In-Charge together with Flor Agustin as OIC Vice Mayor by then President Corazon C. Aquino. Then his brother Engr. Virgilio Fajardo also assumed as OIC.

Then prior to 1987 election, Vice Mayor Felipe Bautista took office as OIC with councilor Aquiles Salcedo, Sr. as OIC Vice Mayor and on that election, Pacifico M.Fajardo and mabini Ancheta won the mayoralty and vice mayoralty race respectively.

Palayan is also the birthplace of the Asianwide Green Scouts Movement in 1993 when the first RP-Japan Bilatateral Ecology Work Camp was held in the city that eventually led to the establishment of project: Kawayang Buhay and Asian Ecology Forest being supported by the Asian Friendship Society.

On 1995, two more barangays were added to Palayan City from 18 to 20. Barangays Popolon formerly of Bongabon was annexed by virtue of Republic Act No. 8030 and approval of the people in a plebiscite on October 1, 1995. Then Bagong Buhay, one of the three resettlement areas was converted to a regular barangay during a plebiscite on November 26, 1995.

In 2002, the construction of the new capitol in Palayan City was completed. The Provincial Museum of Nueva Ecija is located in the new capitol building. A technology-business park was planned but progress about the plan has not been updated for at least 3 years.


Religion

Roman Catholicism comprise the majority of religious affiliation in Palayan. Iglesia ni Cristo, on the other hand, have 9 Local Congregations or Places of Worship in Palayan alone including the INC Resettlement Areas in two barangays namely Barrio Maligaya and Bagong Buhay where all of the residents are members of this religious organization. Barrio Maligaya is the resettlement area where INC workers from Hacienda Luisita settled. Bagong Buhay is the resettlement area for victims of Mount Pinatubo's eruption. Islam comprises about 3% of the population.
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4.10.19

Ozamis City

Ozamis City Hall
 Ozamiz City, is a 3rd class city in the province of Misamis Occidental, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 141,828 people.

Although occasionally spelled as Ozamis in official sources, City Resolution 251-05 officially spelled Ozamiz with a "z" as its last letter rather than with an "s".

History
The city of Ozamiz grew out of an old Spanish town called Misamis—a name believed to have been derived from the Subanen word "Kuyamis," a variety of coconut. Other unverified historical sources, however, suggest that the name Misamis came from "Misa" after the Catholic Mass. The origin and the growth of the old Spanish town, Misamis, was due to the presence of the Spanish garrison stationed at the stone fort named Nuestra Senora dela Concepcion del Triunfo, which was constructed some time in the 18th century in order to control the pirate activities originating in the nearby Lanao area. In 1850, the town of Misamis became the capital of the District of Misamis.

In October 1942 Wendell Fertig established the command headquarters of the growing guerrilla resistance to the Japanese occupation of Mindanao in the Spanish fort in the city. His headquarters was abandoned June 26, 1943, in the face of a large Japanese attack. Until the end of the war the Japanese occupied this fort. The Ozamiz city website said of this, "During the Japanese occupation of Misamis in World War II(1943-1945), the "Cotta" was garrisoned by a contingent of Japanese who dug foxholes near or under the walls. This undermining of walls later led to the destruction of the Southwest bastion in the earthquake of 1955."

After the Second World War, Misamis became a chartered city by virtue of Republic Act 321 on July 16, 1948. RA 321 also renamed Misamis to Ozamiz after a WW-II hero José Ozámiz who hailed from the province of Misamis Occidental and who at one time also served as its governor and congressional representative of the Lone District of Misamis Occidental, a delegate to the 1935 Constitutional Convention that resulted in the creation of the 1935 Constitution for the Philippine Commonwealth Government. In 1941, José Ozámiz was elected to the Philippine Senate.

On July 30, 2017, 2:30am (PST) the mayor of Ozamiz, Reynaldo Parojinog Sr., his wife, brother, and their security guards were killed during a police raid. Parojinog was among the more than 150 officials Duterte publicly linked to drugs in August last year during Rodrigo Duterte's August 7, 2016 speech.

Geography
Ozamiz is close to Zamboanga del Sur and Zamboanga del Norte provinces, while across the bay is Lanao del Norte. Ozamiz is 52 kilometres (32 mi) from Maria Cristina Falls, the main source of hydroelectric power in Mindanao.


Economy
Ozamiz is agricultural by resources, but it has become the center for commerce, health, transportation, and education in this part of Mindanao, considering its strategic location and its peaceful atmosphere. The city has good harbor location, its local port is the principal outlet of mineral deposits, agricultural and forest products of the provinces of Misamis Occidental, Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, Maguindanao, parts of Lanao del Norte, and Lanao del Sur.

Retail
Due to the location of the city, Ozamiz enjoys several notable shopping centers within its city center. People from Misamis Occidental, parts of Lanao del Norte and parts of Zamboanga del Sur will come also to Ozamiz for their shopping needs.

Gaisano Capital Mall Ozamiz is the biggest mall in the city with the expansion of a new South Wing Mall in 2011. Novo Ozamiz also expand and construct their own bigger building with a hotel named Asia Novotel in 2010. Unitop Ozamiz also expand their building in 2012 in front of City Public Mall with a bridge for an easy access from the 2nd floor of both buildings. City Public Mall, formerly known as City Public Market, is the biggest public establishment in Northwestern Mindanao. It is owned and managed by the Ozamiz government and opened on May 28, 2009. Robinsons Supermarket opened to the public on November 30, 2012.


Tourism and Culture
Notable events and festivals
The feast of Our Lady of Triumph of the Cross at Cotta Shrine is celebrated every July 16 which is also the Charter City anniversary. Subayan Keg Subanon festival is also held on the same day. The Cotta entertainment area has free live band concerts and other musical variety shows each weekend. Fireworks displays are held at Cotta during Fiesta and holidays. It can be seen across Panguil bay as far as Lanao del Norte.

The feast of Our Lady of Immaculate Conception is celebrated every December 8 while every 4th Sunday of January is the Sr. Sto. Nino Fluvial Parade held at Panguil Bay. Balanghoy Festival is held annually at Cotta area.

Attractions

Fuerte dela Concepcion y del Triunfo, also known as Cotta Shrine, is a fort built in 1755 by Father Jose Ducos to serve as a Spanish outpost in the area. A special chapel was built inside the walls of the fort and an image of the Virgin of the Immaculate Conception, in the pink and blue attire, was enshrined in the chapel and outside the fort on the wall facing the bay, was a carved image of the Virgin Mary (Nuestra Señora de la Inmaculada Concepción y del Triunfo de la Cruz de Migpangi). The image on the Cotta's wall is believed to be miraculously growing and has been the object of pilgrimage. The fort was renovated and restored to its original design in 2006. Cotta will undergo improvement and development with construction of a boulevard with a Spanish galleon replica, cotta park with parking area, a mini commercial complex for food stalls, ticketing offices, restos, cafes and souvenir shops.
Bukagan Hill has a view of the city, Panguil bay, the provinces of Lanao del Norte and Zamboanga del Sur. There are four great bells at the top of Bukagan Hill. The bells were named after "St. Peter", "St. Marien", "St. Joseph" and "St. Michael" and were originally purchased by Bishop Patrick Cronin, D.D. for the Immaculate Conception Cathedral. However, the bells weigh 7 tons and were found to be too heavy and too large for the cathedral's belfry. The people felt that it was very expensive to construct a special belfry for them considering that a lot of fund raising effort was made for the building of the cathedral and the installing of the pipe organ. It was through the efforts of then City Mayor Fernando T. Bernad that the bells were finally given a place at the Bukagan Hill. With the help of Jesus Y. Varela, the huge bells were installed in Bukagan Hill Bells and officially inaugurated on July 16, 1948.
Naomi's Botanical Garden and tourists Inn sits on a 12 hectare property of local and imported tropical flowers, plants and fruit seedlings. There are fully air-conditioned private rooms, Function halls, tennis court, Golf range, ceramics factory, pottery and a bakery inside this sprawling garden.
Mt. Malindang Golf and country Club is a pre-war army facility converted into a golf course located in Bagakay at the foot of Mount Malindang.
Immaculate Conception Pipe organ, found in the choir loft of the Immaculate Conception Cathedral, is the only existing pipe organ in Mindanao and one among the few throughout the country. An Irish Columban priest, Father Sean Lavery, who was in charge of the liturgical and musical development in the Immaculate Conception Cathedral realized the need for an organ. Funds were raised through donations and a musical extravaganza organized by the parish raised enough money to buy the pipe organ. Father Lavery asked the help of a German priest, Father Herman Schablitzki S.V.D., who came to Ozamiz to get the specification needed to guide the organ builders in Germany. Father Schablitzki himself, assisted by one carpenter and one electrician, assembled the organ in six weeks and it was completed on May 31, 1967. It was inaugurated on July 16, 1967; the feast day of Our Lady of Mount Carmel.
Immaculate Conception Cathedral was built from the ruins of a church destroyed in an earthquake. It was one of the early designs of national artist for architecture Leandro Locsin. his simple style of squares, circles, and half circles are evident in the external and internal designs of the church. The facade was later changed.

Transportation

Main article: Labo Airport
Ozamiz Airport, also known as Labo Airport, was reopened July 5, 2007, 9 years after Philippine Airlines (PAL) stopped their operations using Fokker 50 and Sunriser planes and eventually went the airport to its closure due to its short runway in which cannot accommodate jet planes. Air Philippines, (a subsidiary airline of PAL), was the first airline served the Ninoy Aquino International Airport in Manila using a B737-200 which is also the first jet plane to land the airport while PAL Express (another PAL subsidiary), was then served direct flights to the Mactan–Cebu International Airport again using their Bombardier Q400.

PAL's competitor, Cebu Pacific Air later opened their service in Ozamiz with its first flight to Cebu on November 10, 2008 using their brand-new ATR72-500. With high demand of passengers, cargo and tourist arrivals, Cebu Pacific then launched its Manila route with their Airbus 319, while PAL took over Air Philippines service to Manila using also the Airbus 319 last June 16, 2009.

When Air Philippines took its rebranding as Airphil Express (now PAL Express), it then relaunched its Ozamiz to Manila flight last August 18, 2011 using their Airbus A320. It then forces Cebu Pacific to change its aircraft to replace all of their ATR72-500 that serves Ozamiz Airport to an Airbus A319 and Airbus A320. Despite fierce competition between PAL and Cebu Pacific, PAL ended their operations in Ozamiz last March 25, 2012, leaving their affiliate PAL Express to compete with Cebu Pacific. Since then, the competition between PAL Express and Cebu Pacific became the duopoly in serving to and from the airport.

Ozamiz Airport will undergo a P300M expansion and development with installation of runway lights, extension of runway from its current of length 1.9 km to 2.1 km and construction of a new passenger terminal building.

Sea
Main article: Port of Ozamiz
There are several major shipping lines serving Cebu, Manila and Iligan routes namely: 2GO Travel (formerly SuperFerry, Negros Navigation and Cebu Ferries), Trans-Asia Shipping Lines, Cokaliong Shipping Lines, Carlos A. Gothong Lines, and Philippine Span Asia Carrier Corp.(PSACC former Sulpicio Lines). Cokaliong Shipping Lines increased their Cebu service from thrice to 5 times weekly. Local shipping lines like Daima have trips from Ozamiz to Mukas, Kolambugan, Lanao del Norte routes through Roll-on/roll-off (RORO) ferries that transport passengers, cars/trucks and goods across Panguil bay.

Land
The public mode of transportation within the city is by trisikad/pedicab and motorized tricycle, while Rural Transit, Super Five, UV Express, and public utility jeepneys such as Lotradisco were the predominant transport for interprovincial routes, to and from the city.


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3.10.19

Oroquieta City

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Oroquieta City Hall

Oroquieta City, is a 4th class city and capital of the province of Misamis Occidental, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 70,757 people.

Etymology
Some sources reveal that the town got its name from the barrio in Spain where Father Toas Tomas Casado, the first parish priest, and General Domingo Moriones y Murillo, a hero in the Battle of Oroquieta, were born. Another version is that Oroquieta had derived its name from the words oro (gold) and quita or kita (to find), in reference to the early inhabitants who had found gold along the river.

History
Layawan was the original name of Oroquieta, which was the barrio in the province of Misamis since 1861 until 1879. The early settlers then of the barrio were Boholanos. They found so many stray animals along the river, thus they named the place Layawan, which means a place of stray animals. A little later, Misamis was divided into two provinces, Misamis Occidental and Oriental. Then in 1880, Layawan changed its name to Oroquieta when it became a town. Oroquieta became the capital (cabecera) on January 6, 1930. As capital town, people of various neighboring provinces came and inhabited in the place where they earn their living through fishing, farming, merchandising and other forms of businesses. Soon afterwards its income increased simultaneously with increase in population. In 1942, Oroquieta was made the capital of the free Philippines by the recognized guerrillas and later the ongoing troops of the Philippine Commonwealth Army. (Personal interview with the late Atty. Vicente Blanco, Municipal Mayor during the Japanese Occupation) During this time, President Manuel L. Quezon, together with Sergio Osmeña Sr., a bodyguard and Major Manuel Nieto Sr., landed in Oroquieta after their evacuation from Corregidor to Australia. The seat of government of the Free Philippines then was the Capitol. The Free Philippine Government was then issuing Misamis Occidental emergency notes. President Quezon, upon knowing that Oroquieta was made a capital of the Free Philippines and that the town was issuing emergency notes, authorized the Printing of the Mindanao emergency note. Oroquieta was created a city under Republic Act 5518 and inaugurated as a chartered city on January 1, 1970. The charter converting the municipality of Oroquieta into a city were signed by President Marcos on June 25, 1969, in the presence of the then City Mayor Ciriaco C. Pastrano, with the newly elected councilors and other city officials.

Geography
Oroquieta City is bounded on the south by Aloran and the north by Lopez Jaena. On the eastern side is Iligan Bay, with Concepcion on the southwest and Sapang Dalaga on the northwest. Lowland plains and coastal lowlands are located in the City’s eastern side while highlands and mountains tower over its western side. The City occupies roughly 26,393 hectares, the majority of which comprises the mountain barangays of Mialen, Toliyok, and Sebucal, averaging less than a thousand hectares per Barangay, the 47 barangays of the City outsize its urbanized counterparts.

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1.10.19

Navotas City Hall

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Navotas City Hall
Navotas City, is a 1st class highly urbanized city in Metro Manila, Philippines. According to the 2015 census, it has a population of 249,463 people.

It is known as the Commercial Fishing Hub of the Philippines where the city has the third largest fish port in Asia and the largest in Southeast Asia. Although it was established on December 20, 1827, Navotas celebrates its foundation day every January 16. Navotas became a highly urbanized city on June 24, 2007

ETYMOLOGY

The entire region of Navotas was once part of Malabon. According to one legend, the long and narrow delta extended unbroken from north to south along the seashore. The strip of land between the former district of Tondo, Manila and this town was eaten away by the sea until an opening was made. Water began to flow through the opening. The geographical change prompted the people to refer to the place as "butas", "nayon ng butas", or "nabutas", a Tagalog word that means breached or pierced through. What began as a natural channel developed into a regular waterway, now known as the Navotas River. In later years, the place came to be known as "Nabotas", then "Navotas".

It was also known as Hacienda de Navotas; it was once owned by the Dominican friars until it was sold to the Pascual family during the early days of the American regime and developed into a residential estate.

San Jose de Navotas was the name given to the locality after its patron saint, Saint Joseph. On June 11, 1859, a "Superior Decreto" established a new parish and municipality under the supervision of Friar Matias Navoa. The populace was divided into two distinct groups, the naturales (locals) and the mestizos. Mariano Estrellas was the gobernadorcillo (petty governor) of the naturales and Mariano Israel, of the mestizos. Today, because records are incomplete, recognition is only given to the gobernadorcillos for the mestizos. A school in honor of San Jose was built and known as "San Jose Academy."

ORIGIN AND HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT           

Years ago, the town of Navotas was not known by its present name for it was only considered as part of Malabon. The place appeared to be a long and narrow delta with a thick line of pandan leaves, which grew abundantly extending from north to south along the seashore. It was believed that long ago, the town was not entirely surrounded by water. Old folks believed that the layer of land between the former district of Tondo, Manila and this town was probably soft and weak, such that the turbulent waters of the bay gradually eroded a portion of the land, until an opening was made. Soon seawater begun to flow through its opening especially during high tide. At low tide, the waters from inland flowed out into the sea. This geographical change prompted the people to refer to the place as “nabutas” which means breached or pierced through. This developed into a regular waterway, now known as the Navotas River. In later years, the whole place came to be known as Navotas. 4 The movement for a separate Navotas, which was by that time part of Tambobong, now Malabon started on December 20, 1827 when the “principales” of the three barrios of San Jose, Navotas, and Bangkulasi petitioned the Spanish Government to form a new town citing among others, the difficulty of the people to transact business and attend religious festivities of the mother town. On October 31, 1832, the residents of the three barrios nominated Don Bernabe Francisco to represent them in their fight for separation from Malabon. But the petition of the principales of the three barrios was shelved by the government on September 19, 1855 pending the putting up by the people of Navotas of a church, convent, and a town hall that symbolized their sincerity. In spite of the determined efforts of the principales, their petition was again disapproved on August 19, 1856. Instead of being discouraged, the successive rebuff only served to prod them to work harder. Finally, a document dated February 16, 1859 recorded the separation of barrios San Jose, Navotas, and Bangkulasi from Malabon. When the Philippine Revolution broke out in 1896, Navotas formally joined the revolutionary government of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo on August 6, 1898. On June 11, 1901, the town of Navotas was incorporated into the newly created province of Rizal by virtue of Philippine Commission Act No. 137. In 1903, by virtue of the Philippine Commission Act No. 942, the municipalities of Malabon and Navotas were merged into one by which the former was chosen as the seat of government for economic and centralization purposes. Bernardo Dagala of Navotas fought for the separation of Navotas from Malabon, finally, Navotas gained full independence as a distinct municipality through the enforcement of the Philippine Commission Act No. 142 lasts January 16, 1906. On November 1975, in the exercise of emergency power during martial law of then President Ferdinand E. Marcos, Presidential Decree No. 824 created the Metropolitan Manila Commission, which placed Navotas together with twelve (12), other municipalities of Rizal and the four (4) cities under its jurisdiction. Today, Navotas, after a long wait, was proclaimed as a full-pledge city last June 24, 2007, upon obtaining 12,544 affirmative votes on a plebiscite. Navotas, together with the other fifteen (15) cities and one (1) municipality (Pateros) remain part of Metropolitan Manila, particularly of the National Capital Region (NCR). As mandated by the Local Government Code of 1991, this LGU is also guided by various devolved, deconcentrated and concerned National Government Agencies likewise encouraging the support and participation of the Non-Government Organization on its undertaking towards national development.5


TOPOGRAPHY 
Navotas is a coastal town in the northwest part of Metro Manila. It is a narrow strip of land with an aggregated shoreline of approximately 4.5 km. In the north, Navotas shares a common border with the town of Obando, Bulacan, along Sukol Creek which separates it from Balt. Along the eastern border runs the Binuangan River, the Daang Cawayan River, the Dampalit River, the Batasan River, the Navotas River, the Bangculasi Channel, the Malabon Channel and the Estero de Maypajo.

It is bordered on the north by Obando, Bulacan along Sukol Creek; on the south by the city of Manila; on the east by Daang Binuangan River, Bangkulasi Channel, Malabon Channel and Estero de Maypajo; and on the west by Manila Bay.


POLITICAL PROFILE 
With regards to the separation of Navotas from Malabon in 1859 and the organization thereof as a distinct municipality or "pueblo" with its own government and church, this town was headed by the governadorcillos who exercised executive and judicial functions. However, as this locality was composed of two groups the naturales and the mestizos, each of which had its own governadorcillo appointed by the governor-general who was the supreme authority in all local matters, since the inhabitants did not allow choosing their officials. This political system was somehow revoked at the end of the Spanish Regime through the Maura Law of 1883, which guided some of the selected officials to the supervision of an insular authority. During the revolutionary period (from 1898-1902), as the democratic system of local governance was being established via the First Philippines Republic and Malolos Constitution, people of Navotas with high character, social position and honorable conduct gathered in a meeting and elected the chief of the town, the headman of the barrio (barangay) and three officials viz., for police and internal order, justice and civil registry, and taxes and property. In this situation, these elected officials constitute an assembly wherein the chief of the town was the president, the headman, the vice-president, and the justice officer the secretary. In this period, the name of Navotas LGU and its head were changed from "pueblo to municipality" and from "President to Mayor". Philippine Commission, which exercised supervision over local government, appointed the first local official. Gradually, election of officials was allowed.

During the period of the Philippine Commonwealth (from 1935-1945), the 1935 constitution ushered. This provided that the President of the Philippines should exercise general supervision over all local governments. This allowed Navotas to have three leaders. This trend from 1946 to 1972 (during the second Philippine Republic) was toward decentralization. Congress passed laws giving more autonomy to Local Government Units through the grant of additional powers and lessening of national control affairs. This created four (4) Mayors of Navotas. During the Martial Law Period, President Marcos had changed the structure and functions of LGU's, thus decentralization suffered the set back with the concentration of power on his hands. After December 31, 1975 (expiration of tenure of office of the local elective officials), the President assumed the power of appointment of the officials as authorized by the people in a referendum held on 27 February 1975. During the Marcos Regime, Navotas had two Mayors.

Navotas was proclaimed as a full-fledged city by virtue of RA 9387 that converted the municipality of Navotas into a highly urbanized city. A plebiscite was held on June 24, 2007 which was ratified the conversion of Navotas into a highly urbanized city.



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30.9.19

ORMOC CITY

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Ormoc City Hall

HISTORY OF ORMOC CITY



The City of Ormoc, the center of commerce and industry on the western part of Leyte, is the first non-provincial capital city of the Philippines. It is a showcase of progress and modernity even as its history is a saga of sacrifices, toils and privations of its founders.
Before the Portuguese navigator, Ferdinand Magellan, reached Leyte in 1521, a handful of Malayan families lived in a small settlement called “OGMOK”, an old Visayan term for lowland or depressed plain. “OGMOK” was also the name of a spring located between the present barangays of Donghol and Mahayag. The name ORMOC, evidently, is the variation of the original name and came into use with the coming of the Spanish Conquistadores and the migration of people from the neighboring towns and islands to settle in its fertile plains.
The primitive Malayans had some well-developed trade and commerce with the Chinese, Javanese and Indonesians who frequented the islands in their junks, vintas and sailboats. Pigafetta, the Spanish historian, mention “OGMOK” in his chronicles as one place in Leyte where Magellan touched in search of food and water in March 1521. On July 16, 1595, Father Chirino and the other Jesuit missionaries arrived in Leyte. In May 1597, Fathers Alonso Rodriguez and Leonardo Scelsi founded the mission of Ormoc. This date marked the conversion of the Ogmokanons to Christianity.
Ormoc, being a seacoast village, was always raided and constantly harassed by Moro pirates every now and then. Privacy and brigandage were fought by the Malayans of Ogmok, Baybay and Palompon (mother town of Ogmok). These towns established a “grapevine” communication system, “runners”, from the watch towers built to inform and warn the inhabitants of the presence of Moro vintas sighted far out to sea.
Early in 1634, Raja Bugsu, ruler of Sulu, captured 300 natives from Ormoc after a successful attack in Camarines. To protect the people, the Jesuit Juan del Carpio constructed fortifications, which were attacked by the Maguindanaus before its completion. On December 3, 1634, the notorious pirate Katsil Kunalat (Kudarat) invaded Ogmok fresh from his invasion, pillage and plunder of the towns of Sogod, Kabalian, Kanamokan (now Inopacan) and Baybay. Fifty brave Ogmokanons fought the invaders furiously but were annihilated by sheer superiority of arms and number of the enemy. The defenders were massacred up to the last man inside the fort that defended the town and Carpio was killed.
In 1788, the Augustinians took over the missions in Leyte after the Jesuits were expelled. On February 26, 1834, Ormoc was separated from her mother town Palompon and created into a separate and distinct municipality. The following month, March 1834, saw the formal inauguration of the Ormoc Catholic Parish with Rev. Fr. Bibiano Luciano as first curate. The line of chief executives of the Ormoc civil government is equally impressive. Immediately after the creation of Ormoc as a municipio in 1834, one Sofronio Cabiling was appointed Capitan to head the gobierno municipal. His successor capitanes were Gregorio Sacay, Epifanio Ortiz, Agaton Aparis, Inocentes Eamiguel, Rosendo Daffon, Fernando Bañez, Nicolas Torres, Mateo Solidor and Leon Aviles.
During the Philippine revolution, Leyte became involved only several months after its outbreak in August 1896. The Revolutionary Government represented by General Vicente Lukban took possession of Leyte.
Shortly after the Americans defeated the Spaniards and later the Filipinos, a civil government was established in Leyte in April 22, 1901. However, an Ormocanon by the name of Faustino Ablen organized the pulahanes movement, a resistance group, which was eventually defeated by the American forces; but the heroism of Faustino Ablen became the symbol of the Ormocanons courage and bravery.
With the establishment of the American controlled civil government following the termination of the Spanish-American War at the turn of the century, Ormoc’s town executives assumed the title of Municipal President with Dr. Fernando Calderon acting as the first and last appointed official to this post. Atty. Victorio Laurente was the last elected Municipal President. During the first term of Atty. Victorio Laurente, the Commonwealth Government came into existence on November 15, 1935. The town executive sported the title Alcalde Municipal or Municipal Mayor. Under this category the following mayors served the Municipality of Ormoc: Victorio Laurente, second term, 1938-1941; Catalino Hermosilla, 1941-1943 (replaced on the third year of his term by the Japanese Government appointing in his place Jose Codilla, 1943- 1944). The Resistance Government appointed Potenciano Larrazabal, 1944-1945 ratified amd confirmed later by the American Liberation Army.
When World War II broke out, Japanese Imperial forces occupied the province of Leyte on May 25, 1942. Consequently, resistance units were organized; among them was the Western Leyte Welfare Forces. On November 6, 1944, the decisive and historic battle of Ormoc “Corridor”, a three-pronged attack by the combined forces of the Americans and Filipinos encircled and placed the Yamashita Line completely under control. The American 77th Division landed at Deposito, about 3 miles south of Ormoc, on the 77th of December; captured Camp Downer on the 9th; and entered Ormoc the next day despite enemy opposition.
Ormoc became a city through Republic Act No. 179 fathered by Congressman Dominador Tan, which was approved on June 21, 1947. The late first President of the Philippines Republic Manuel A. Roxas proclaimed Ormoc City a City on September 4, 1947. By virtue of Presidential Proclamation No. 42, Ormoc was formally inaugurated as a city on October 20, 1947, exactly three years after the famous Leyte Landing.
From a small town of dirt roads and a few asphalt streets of the 1950s, Ormoc has metamorphosed into an expanding jungle of concrete and infrastructures. Wide concrete roads and bridges, well-equipped government and private hospitals and clinics, airport facilities, banking and financing institutions, commercial and trade establishments, housing projects, factories and industrial plants, all are eloquent evidences of modern development and progress thrusts.
Prominent mayors who were instrumental in directing Ormoc City on the road to progress from the ravages of war during this period were the late Mayor Marcelo Bandalan, the first appointed mayor of the City of Ormoc. Then, Esteban Conejos Sr., the last appointed mayor (1957-1959) and the first elected mayor (1959-1963), followed by Iñaki A. Larrazabal Sr. who was appointed as mayor on 1948-1949 and 1953-1954; elected as mayor from 1967-1971 and re-elected 1971-1984.
A flashflood on November 5, 1991 brought death, destruction of crops and damage in properties. The severity of the damage was found to be due to massive deforestation/rapid forest denudation. In response, the government and the private sector embarked on a concerted effort directed towards full-scale reforestation of the denuded areas. Mayor Eufrocino M. Codilla Sr. (elected 1992-1995, re-elected 1995-1998 and 1998-2001) leads the drive towards the reconstruction of Ormoc City after this calamity. Under his term, reconstruction of infrastructure support facilities, reforestation projects, construction of resettlement facilities, drainage system, water system, lighting system and provision for social services for Ormoc’s constituents were undertaken. In addition he was instrumental in the construction of the Ormoc Superdome and the establishment of shopping malls in the city. Through his effort, Ormoc with the assistance of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) implemented a Flood Mitigation Project that addresses the threat of flooding of the city center during typhoons and heavy downpour.
Ormoc is now fast becoming the hub of development in the region. With its strategic geographical location in which it serves as a gateway to the Eastern Visayas, more economic activities have taken place evident in the rapid growth of business establishments, financial institutions and infrastructures. Although fast development was largely attributed to the activities spawned by the PNOC (now Energy Development Corporation, EDC) Geothermal Power production project in Tongonan, many attest the development is necessary to accommodate the rising number of people and businesses in the area.

Today, Ormoc City is a picture of steady progress and stability. With its continuous modernization program, more investors are coming into the city, which contributed to it being adjudged as the 2005 Most Business-Friendly City in the Visayas by the prestigious Philippine Chamber of Commerce and Industry. And though the city has embarked on modernization, it has also keep attuned its environmental protection programs as evident in being a consistent Cleanest and Greenest City awardee in Region VIII and one of the Cleanest and Greenest City in the country. This prestigious award is a leading tribute to visualize Ormoc as a “beauty by the bay”, a wonderful place to visit whether for business of pleasure.

Ormoc City Government

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14.8.18

Naga city - Cebu

 Naga City, is a component city in the province of Cebu, Philippines. According to the 2015 census it has a population of 115,750. In the 2016 electoral roll, it had 63,755 registered voters. 

The city of Naga lies within the Cebu metropolitan area. 

This City is often confused by visitors coming primarily from Luzon and other parts of the country not near to Central Visayas with the city of Naga in Camarines Sur. 

History
Even before the coming of the Spanish colonial government, Naga, which was then a flourishing village off the riverbanks of the storied Naga River, was already a thriving community. As pointed in the book of Prof. Danilo M. Gerona, a local historian, Naga was then a premier village with a comparatively sophisticated weaponry and surprisingly advanced technology. The name “Naga” derived its origin from the narra trees, which were then in abundance. Thus, in 1573, when the Spanish Troops arrived led by Capt. Juan de Salcedo, the colonizers were amazed to find a community with a fairly well advanced culture. In 1574, Captain Pedro de Chaves founded Ciudad de Nueva Caceres in honor of Don Francisco de Sande, then governor of the province and native of the City of Caceres in Spain. Naga, the premier native village and then a Spanish pueblo, formed part of the Spanish colonial city. Nueva Caceres remained the capital of Ambos Camarines provinces and later of the Camarines Sur province until the formal creation of the independent component city of Naga under the Philippine Republic. Naga’s birth as a chartered city formally took place on December 15, 1948 by virtue of Republic Act No. 305. Rep. Juan Q. Miranda sponsored this legislative act which put flesh into the city’s bid to become among the only few independent component cities in the country.

CIUDAD NIN NAGA has been for hundred of years a center of trade, education and culture, and the seat of governmental and ecclesiastical jurisdiction.

In 1573, on his second expedition to this region, the great conquestador, Juan de Salcedo, discovered here a flourishing Bikol Village called Naga, because it is said, of an abundance of Narra (naga in Bikol) trees about the place. In 1575 (200 years before the start of the American Revolution), Capt. Pedro de Chavez, the commander of the garrison left behind by Salcedo, founded on the site of the present business center (across the river from the original Naga) a Spanish city which he named Ciudad de Caceres, in honor of Francisco de Sande, the governor general and a native of the city of Caceres in Spain. It was still by this name that it was identified in the papal bull of August 14, 1595 that erected the See of Caceres (together with those of Cebu and Nueva Segobia) and made it the seat of the new bishopric.

In time, Spanish city and native village merged into one community and became popularly known as Nueva Caceres, obviously to distinguish it from its namesake in Spain. It had a city government as prescribed by Spanish law, with an ayuntamiento and cabildo of its own. At the beginning of the17th century, there were only five other ciudades in the Philippines.

With the advent of the American rule, it was reduced to a municipality. In 1919, it lost its Spanish name, when, by law, it became officially known as Naga. It acquired its present city charter in 1948, and its city government was inaugurated on December 15 of the same year.

The bishops of Caceres occupied a unique place in the Philippine Catholic hierarchy during most of the Spanish regime. By virtue of the papal brief of Gregory XIII, ecclesiastical cases originating in the Spanish Indies, which ordinarily were appealable to the Pope, were ordered to be terminated there and no longer elevated to Rome. Decisions of bishops were made appealable to the archbishop and those of the latter to the bishop of the nearest see. Thus, in the Philippines, the decisions of the archbishop of Manila were subject to review by the bishop of Caceres whose jurisdiction then extended to the province of Tayabas. In this sense, bishops of Bikol were delegates of the Pope and could be considered primates of the Church of the Philippines.

This was the reason why bishops of Caceres and archbishop of Manila were sometimes engaged in interesting controversies in the sensational Naga case and in such issues as canonical visitation and the secularization of the parishes.
As papal delegate, Bishop Francisco Gainza, then concurrently bishop of Caceres, sat in the special ecclesiastical tribunal which passed upon the civil authorities' petition to divert Fathers Burgos, Gomez, and Zamora of their priestly dignity. Gainza did not only refuse the petition but also urged their pardon.

Situated at the center of the Bikol peninsula and surrounded on all sides by rich agricultural, forest and fishing areas, Naga is also at the confluence of the Naga and Bikol Rivers. Thus, it has always been an ideal place for trade, and as center for schools and church and government offices.

In downtown Naga, just opposite Naga's tallest structure, the Holiday Hotel, you will see a park situated between Peñafrancia Ave. and Elias Angeles Street, and right in the middle of it the lofty monument to Bikol's Quince Martires. Actually, Bikol's martyrs of freedom number in the thousands but these fifteen have been specially singled out as symbols of the rest because on January 4, 1897, just five days after Dr. Rizal was executed, eleven of them were likewise shot at Bagumbayan field in Manila. The others died for country in exile or in prison.They were avenged, however, at the Peñafrancia Fiesta, September 18, 1898 for corporals Elias Angeles and Felix Plazo convinced their fellow members of the guardia civil not to allow the same fate to befall them as had befallen the Daet patriots. So on the night of the fiesta they attacked the Spanish officers' quarters, routed them and then did battle with the rest of the Spanish community who had established themselves in the convento of the historic San Francisco Church (just opposite the Quince Martires monuments, its old bell tower can still be seen). When word of this startling defeat reached Partido, Legazpi, Sorsogon and Catanduanes, all Spanish forces and governmental men withdraw to Iloilo. Sad to say, in January 1900, the American imperialistic forces invaded Camarines Sur and headed for Naga. However, Naga resident General Ludovico Arejola, organized a large guerilla army and fought the Americans at Agdangan, Baao. Afterwards he set up a camp in the mountains of Minalabac and held out for a full year and two and two months more, until rampant sickness forced the surrender of himself and his men in a formal ceremony in Naga on March 31, 1901. In late December 1941, Naga was again put under another foreign power, Japan, but once again on May 1 and 2, 1942; the combined guerilla forces of the province smashed their way into Naga. Their main purpose in doing so was to liberate the 30 American prisoners in the provincial jail. At the risk of their own lives and those of their relatives and neighbors not only freed, but also sheltered their former colonizers in the mountain. On April 9, 1945, a large number of Major Juan Q. Miranda's guerillas again attacked the Japanese forces in Naga. American planes also heavily bombed the city. The American army arrived finally on April 27. Naga became a chartered city in 1948. On the first decade of 1700's the first chapel to the Virgin Mary of Peñafrancia was constructed just above the city and along the banks of Naga River that is the avenue upon which the image is triumphantly borne from downtown Naga on the afternoon of Peñafrancia Saturday. This devotion is an authentic regional fiesta and the population of the city more than doubles on those days as pilgrims come from all over the six Bicol provinces as well as many from Manila and other distant places to share in this great religious experience and festival.Three (3) of the most venerable institutions and structures in Naga are clustered together along the upper part of Elias Angeles Street. They are the Cathedral that begun in the year 1816, the Holy Rosary Seminary and the Colegio de Sta. Isabel. Founded in 1793 as both a college and a seminary, The Holy Rosary Seminary is one of the oldest schools in the republic. It educated literally thousands of the sons of all the leading families from as far north as Mauban, Quezon, and as far south as Leyte. In 1925, the laymen’s department was separated from the seminary and became the Camarines Sur Catholic Academy, which in turn, in 1940 became the Ateneo de Naga. Naga Parochial School took over the training of the elementary boys in 1948.

In 1868, the first normal school for women in the entire Orient was established in Naga as the Colegio de Sta. Isabel. Each parish in Bikol was required to send at least one pensionada to study there that they might be trained to run the parochial school in their own home place. The colegio’s present day population of more than 5,000 shows the appreciation of the Bikol people for its century of work for Bikol youth.The University of Nueva Caceres, adjacent to Naga’s Centro, is the first university in southern Luzon. Over 9,000 students are being trained “non scholae ser vitae” in its halls. Students come from as far south as Zamboanga to attend its law, engineering, commerce, liberal arts courses. Its Bicol Museum is the best in the entire Peninsula.

Naga has a multitude of other fine schools: Naga College Foundation, Camarines Sur National High School, Bicol College of Arts and Trade, Naga City Science High School, St. Joseph School, Hope Christian School, Philippine Union College and many energetic business and fashion academies.

Cityhood
During the 11th Congress (1998–2001), Congress enacted into law 33 bills converting 33 municipalities into cities. However, Congress did not act on a further 24 bills converting 24 other municipalities into cities.
During the 12th Congress (2001–2004), Congress enacted into law Republic Act No. 9009 (RA 9009), which took effect on 30 June 2001. RA 9009 amended Section 450 of the Local Government Code by increasing the annual income requirement for conversion of a municipality into a city from ₱20 million to ₱100 million. The rationale for the amendment was to restrain, in the words of Senator Aquilino Pimentel, "the mad rush" of municipalities to convert into cities solely to secure a larger share in the Internal Revenue Allotment despite the fact that they are incapable of fiscal independence.
After RA 9009 went into effect, the House of Representatives of the 12th Congress adopted Joint Resolution No. 29, which sought to exempt from the ₱100 million income requirement in RA 9009 the 24 municipalities whose cityhood bills were not approved in the 11th Congress. However, the 12th Congress ended without the Senate having approved Joint Resolution No. 29.
During the 13th Congress (2004–2007), the House of Representatives re-adopted former Joint Resolution No. 29 as Joint Resolution No. 1 and forwarded it to the Senate for approval. However, the Senate again failed to approve the Joint Resolution. Following the suggestion of Senator Aquilino Pimentel (Senate President), 16 municipalities filed, through their respective sponsors, individual cityhood bills. The 16 cityhood bills each contained a common provision exempting it from the ₱100 million income requirement of RA 9009 –
"Exemption from Republic Act No. 9009. — The City of x x x shall be exempted from the income requirement prescribed under Republic Act No. 9009."
On 22 December 2006, the House of Representatives approved the cityhood bills. The Senate also approved the cityhood bills in February 2007, except that of Naga, Cebu which was passed on 7 June 2007. These cityhood bills lapsed into law on various dates from March to July 2007 after President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo failed to sign them.
Cityhood was ratified in a plebiscite on 2 September 2007. The point of law at issue in 2007 was whether there had been a breach of Section 10, Article X of the 1987 Constitution, which provides –
No province, city, municipality, or barangay shall be created, divided, merged, abolished or its boundary substantially altered, except in accordance with the criteria established in the local government code and subject to approval by a majority of the votes cast in a plebiscite in the political units directly affected.
– and in each case the established criteria were far from met.
In November 2008, Naga and 15 other cities lost their cityhood after the Supreme Court of the Philippines granted a petition filed by the League of Cities of the Philippines, and declared unconstitutional the cityhood law (RA 9491) which had allowed the town to acquire its city status. The Supreme Court ruled that they did not pass the requirements for cityhood.
On 10 December 2008, the 16 cities affected acting together filed a motion for reconsideration with the Supreme Court. More than a year later, on 22 December 2009, acting on said appeal, the Court reversed its earlier ruling as it ruled that "at the end of the day, the passage of the amendatory law" (regarding the criteria for cityhood as set by Congress) "is no different from the enactment of a law, i.e., the cityhood laws specifically exempting a particular political subdivision from the criteria earlier mentioned. Congress, in enacting the exempting law/s, effectively decreased the already codified indicators. Accordingly cityhood status was restored.
But on 27 August 2010, the 16 cities lost their city status again, after the Supreme Court voted 7-6, with two justices not taking part, to reinstate the 2008 decision declaring as "unconstitutional" the Republic Acts that converted the 16 municipalities into cities. A previous law required towns aspiring to become cities to earn at least ₱100 million annually, which none of the 16 did.
On 15 February 2011, the Supreme Court made another volte-face and upheld for the third time the cityhood of 16 towns in the Philippines.
Finally, on 12 April 2011, the Supreme Court, in an en banc ruling delivered in Baguio City, affirmed the finality of the constitutionality of the 16 cityhood laws by resolving that:
We should not ever lose sight of the fact that the 16 cities covered by the Cityhood Laws not only had conversion bills pending during the 11th Congress, but have also complied with the requirements of the LGC prescribed prior to its amendment by R.A. No. 9009. Congress undeniably gave these cities all the considerations that justice and fair play demanded. Hence, this Court should do no less by stamping its imprimatur to the clear and unmistakable legislative intent and by duly recognizing the certain collective wisdom of Congress. WHEREFORE, the Ad Cautelam Motion for Reconsideration (of the Decision dated 15 February 2011) is denied with finality.
On 28 June 2011 the Supreme Court directed the Clerk of Court to issue the entry of judgment on the cityhood case of 16 municipalities.