Scenery and Nature

The Great Barrier Reef
The Great Barrier Reef, off the coast of Queensland in northeastern Australia, is the largest living thing on Earth, and even visible from outer space. The 2,300km-long ecosystem comprises thousands of reefs and hundreds of islands made of over 600 types of hard and soft coral. It's home to countless species of colourful fish, molluscs and starfish, plus turtles, dolphins and sharks.

Kronotsky Volcano-Russia

Kronotsky (Russian: Кроноцкая сопка, Kronotskaya Sopka) is a major stratovolcano of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. It has a particularly symmetrical conical shape, comparable to Mount Fuji in Japan and to Mayon Volcano in the Philippines. The summit crater is plugged by a volcanic neck, and the summit itself is ice capped. It exhibits the classic radial drainage pattern, extending downward from its crater. Kronotsky is considered to be one of the most scenic volcanos in Kamchatka.

Klyuchevskaya Sopka

Klyuchevskaya Sopka (Russian: Ключевская сопка; also known as Kliuchevskoi, Russian: Ключевской) is a stratovolcano, the highest mountain on the Kamchatka Peninsula of Russia and the highest active volcano of Eurasia. Its steep, symmetrical cone towers about 100 kilometres (60 mi) from the Bering Sea. The volcano is part of the natural Volcanoes of Kamchatka UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Klyuchevskaya's first recorded eruption occurred in 1697, and it has been almost continuously active ever since, as have many of its neighboring volcanoes. It was first climbed in 1788 by Daniel Gauss and two other members of the Billings Expedition. No other ascents were recorded until 1931, when several climbers were killed by flying lava on the descent. As similar dangers still exist today, few ascents are made.
Klyuchevskaya Sopka is considered sacred by some indigenous peoples, being viewed by them as the location at which the world was created. Other volcanoes in the region are seen with similar spiritual significance, but Klyuchevskaya Sopka is the most sacred of these.

Mount Mayon
Mayon Volcano (TagalogBulkang MayonCentral BikolBulkan Mayon), also known as
Mount Mayon, is an active volcano in the province of Albay, on the island of Luzon in the
Philippines. Renowned as the "perfect cone" because of its almost symmetric conical shape, the mountain was declared a national park and a protected landscape on July 20, 1938, the first in the country. It was reclassified a Natural Park and renamed Mayon Volcano Natural Park in the year 2000.

Maelifeell Volcano
Maelifeell Volcano on the edge of the Myrdalsjökull glacier, Iceland (63°51’ N, 19°13’ W).
In the south of the island, this volcanic cone made up of ashes and projections of solidified lava was created by one of the numerous eruptions that occurred beneath the ice of the Myrdalsjökull glacier. The Maelifell volcano emerged from the retreating glacier about 10.000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age and is now bathed by the torrents flowing from the melting glacier. Its perfect cone which stands 656 feet (200 meters) above the plain is covered with grimmia, a moss that grows on lava that has cooled down and changes color, from silvery grey to bright green, depending on the soil’s humidity. This moss is one of the few plants that have been able to grow on Iceland’s territory. It is indeed characterized by a certain botanical poverty with less than 1.300 vegetal species (including 500 species of moss). Only 40 percent of land is covered with permanent vegetation. Iceland (it name says it all, “the land of ice”) is geologically very young at only 23 million years old. It has over 200 active volcanoes and many glaciers that cover almost an eighth of the island’s surface area.

Mount Shishaldin

Mount Shishaldin  is a moderately active volcano on Unimak Island in the Aleutian Islands chain of Alaska. It is the highest mountain peak of the Aleutian Islands. The most symmetrical cone-shaped glacier-clad large mountain on earth, the volcano's topographic contour lines are nearly perfect circles above 6,500 feet (2,000 m). The lower north and south slopes are somewhat steeper than the lower eastern and western slopes. The volcano is the westernmost of three large stratovolcanoes along an east–west line in the eastern half of Unimak Island. The Aleuts named the volcano Sisquk, meaning "mountain which points the way when I am lost." The upper 2,000 meters is almost entirely covered by glacial snow and ice. In all, Shishaldin's glacial shield covers about 35 square miles (91 km2). It is flanked to the northwest by 24 monogenetic parasitic cones, an area blanketed by massive lava flows. The Shishaldin cone is less than 10,000 years old and is constructed on a glacially eroded remnant of an ancestral soma and shield. Remnants of the older ancestral volcano are exposed on the west and northeast sides at 1,500–1,800 meters elevation. The Shishaldin edifice contains about 300 cubic kilometers of material. A very steady steam plume rises from its small summit crater which is about 500 feet (150 m) across and slightly breached along the north rim.

Mount Fuji
 Mount Fuji is the highest mountain in Japan at 3,776 m (12,388 ft). Along with Mount Tate and Mount Haku, it is one of Japan's "Three Holy Mountains". An active volcano that last erupted in 1707–08, Mount Fuji straddles the boundary of Shizuoka and Yamanashi prefectures just west of Tokyo, from which it can be seen on a clear day. It is located near the Pacific coast of central Honshū. Three small cities surround it: Gotemba (south), Fujiyoshida (north) and Fujinomiya (southwest). Mount Fuji's exceptionally symmetrical cone is a well-known symbol of Japan and it is frequently depicted in art and photographs, as well as visited by sightseers and climbers.

The Kamchatka peninsula is a volcanic 1 250 km long and 450 km wide, located in the east of Russia.
It juts into the Pacific Ocean and has about 330,000 inhabitants. This peninsula is filled with volcanoes, part of which is inscribed on the World Heritage List of UNESCO since 1996. Kamchatka is surrounded by the Sea of Okhotsk to the west, the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east. The peninsula has a high seismic activity, it is located on a subduction zone between the Pacific Plate and the Eurasian plate. His two volcanic mountain ranges are part of the Pacific Ring of Fire where we find the greatest concentration of active volcanoes. The 1952 earthquake reached a magnitude of 9. Nearby there are the trench of the Kuril Islands, the third deepest pit of the world, it reached a depth of 10,542 meters. The great peninsula of Kamchatka is a land of young Geologically, the peninsula has advanced to the ocean there are about a million years.

Mount Quitaraju
 Mount Quitaraju is a 19,816 ft / 6,040 m mountain peak near Carhuaz, Ancash, Peru. Based on peakery data, it ranks as the 17th highest mountain in Ancash and the 36th highest mountain in Peru.

Mount Egmont

Mount.Egmont (Mount Taranaki), Egmont National Park, Taranaki, North Island, New Zealand, 
 New Zealand Sunrise Scenery and Nature Landscape 
Lake Pukaki, Sky Clouds, Mountains Nature and Scenery New Zealand South Island 

Tree on the edge of a cliff in Camotes island Phil.



Municipality of Poro

Municipality of Poro

Poro is a fourth class municipality. According to the 2010 census, it has a population of 23,498.
Poro, along with the municipality of Tudela, is located on Poro Island of the Camotes Islands.
The patronal feast of Poro is celebrated on the third Friday of January, in honour of the Santo Niño de Cebu.

The town's name is derived from the Waray-Waray word puro meaning "island".
Aside from Visayan languages, Filipino, and English, the townsfolk also speak the local Porohanon language. Also known as Camotes Visayan, the language is mutually intelligible with other VIsayan languages
Porohanon is distinguished by the way the locals substitute  sounds with  e.g. the Cebuano Maayong buntag ("Good morning") is vocalised as Maazong buntag in Porohanon (possibly a handover from the yeísmo phenomenon in Spanish). Other dialectical variations include the Porohanon Ara dira instead of the standard Cebuano Na-a diha.

Poro comprises 17 barangays:   Adela, Altavista, Cagcagan, Cansabusab, Daan Paz (formerly Poso), Eastern Poblacion, Esperanza, Libertad, Mabini, Mercedes, Pagsa, Paz (formerly Santa Rosa), Rizal, San Jose, Santa Rita, Teguis, Western Poblacion.

Maktang Beach, Brgy. Esperanza


Historical Background

The Municipality of Poro was founded on December 15, 1701 but was given recognition by the Spanish Colonial government only on January 16, 1780 through the efforts of Pedro Estrera who was named the first Capitan of Poro as recognition of his leadership. The name Poro came from the Waray word “puro”, meaning island. The early settlers of Poro came from Samar, and later, they were joined by others from Cebu, Bohol and Panay .

During the Spanish period, Poro was already a thriving community overseen by Jesuit Mission posts in Palompon, Leyte . A survey made by the Spanish authorities under Capitan General Gomez Perez Dasmariñas in Manila on May 31, 1591 revealed that the whole of Camote ( Camotes Island ) and Mactan (Mactan) had 287 tributes with a population of 1,148 inhabitants. By this time, periodic raids from marauding slave traders had become the constant threat to the growing populace.

The Alcalde mayor of Cebu thought that it was better for the natives to unify and defend themselves from the attacks. Poro at that time had two settlements: Maktang (now a sitio of Barangay Esperanza of Poro) and Tag-Anito (now the municipality of Tudela ). A conflict arose as to which settlement should become the seat of government. On the advise of Panganuron, an elder who lived on the banks of a river (now Barangay Libertad), the two settlements journeyed on foot towards each other at the break of day. They met on the site of what is now Poblacion, Poro, approximately eight kilometers from both settlements. On that day, inhabitants of the two settlements came to live together for the first time. They built a chapel on this site which later on was improved and became the parish church. The establishment of Poro brought about the creation of three more parishes in the Camotes Islands : Pilar (1859), San Francisco (1863) and Tudela (1898).

The Philippine Commission Act 952 was enacted on October 22, 1902 reverting back Camotes Islands of Cebu Province . Earlier the Spanish government has annexed Poro and the rest of Camotes Islands to Leyte because of geographical proximity. Perhaps Camotes was seen as nearer Cebu City , the seat of the Cebu Government, than Leyte's set of government which is Tacloban City . Other events followed: five days after Camotes joined Cebu , Poro was annexed to Tudela, a former settlement of Poro. In 1909, it was re-established again as a municipality although the seat remained in Tudela until 1914 when the seat was transferred to Poro.

Porohanons are descended from generations of seafarers who came and tamed the restless sea the sea that in turn defined and shaped their lives. In the early days when the dry “Habagat” wind battered its shores and when the nippy air of the “Amihan” turned up, the island isolated itself from its neighbors. All activity is suspended; trade from other ports and news from the mainland temporarily came to a stop. Thus, once in a while, they lived a life of seclusion, waiting for the unkind weather to recede. Life then meant a cycle of frequent squalls and tranquil intervals.

A distinction that separates Porohanons from the rest of Camotes Islands is their sub dialect which is a combination of Cebuano, Waray, Boholano and Ilonggo. The patois is profusely spattered with the letter “z” and spoken with a thick accent. Dr. Resil Mojares, a Cebuano historian, said in an article that “at one point in time, the Camotes dialect was distinct from either Waray or Cebuano” until it evolved into a totally different sub dialect retaining older features which the Cebuano language has lost. Spoken alongside other dialects (like Cebuano, spoken by the other Camotes towns), and Tagalog (courtesy of television seta and tabloids), the Porohanon tongue is totally distinct and has survived through the years without any dilution at all.


A. Geographical Location

Poro is a fifth class municipality situated in Poro Island , one of the three islands comprising the Camotes Islands in Cebu Province . The municipality of Poro sprawls between 10 degrees 37' 30” to 10 degrees 43' 10” latitude and 124 degrees 23' 00” to 124 degrees 28' 50” longitude. It is bounded on the north by the strait of Kawit ; on the east by the municipality of Tudela ; on the south by the shark-infested Camotes Sea ; and on the west by the municipality of San Francisco . Travel time by fast craft from Cebu City is one (1) hour with two trips daily, 4 hours by a passenger-cargo vessel from Cebu City with one trip daily and two hours from Danao City by pumpboat with two trips per day. It is approximately 565 kilometers southeast of Manila , 62 kilometers northeast of Cebu City and 54 kilometers west of Leyte .

B. Land Area

The municipality of Poro has a total land area of 6,388.7 hectares or 63.887 square kilometers. The timberland area is 736 hectares while 5650.7 hectares are classified as alienable and disposable land.

C. Climate

The municipality of Poro falls under the fourth type of climate. Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year. The most common air currents are the northeast monsoon, the trade winds and the southwest monsoon. The general direction of the winds are from the east to the southeast (February to April) and the southerly (May to September)

D. Topography

The municipality has mixed topographical reliefs. Areas around Barangay Mabini, Poblacion, Altavista and Libertad which cover a total land area of 2658.8 hectares or 38.82 percent of the total land area, have very steeply sloping lands in many directions to very mountainous to hilly areas.

On the other hand, areas along the northern portion of the municipality, particularly Barangay Esperanza, have broad areas or nearly level lands and gently sloping areas with land sloping in one general direction. This slope category occupies an estimated land area of 3729.9 hectares or 54.46 percent of the total land area.


A. Population Distribution

The National Statistics office in its September 1995 Census on Population and Housing, revealed that the municipality of Poro has a total population of 21,517. This gives an increase of 2,371 or 12.38% over the 1990 census which was 19,146.

The estimated rate of increase is placed at 2.33% per annum. By 2008, the population is expected to reach 29,131. The high rate of increase which is almost equal to the national rate of 2.36% can be traced to the increasing economic activity in the municipality which has prevented those wishing to migrate to other places and those who came back from the other places and engage in business or other means of livelihood in the municipality.


A. Agriculture

1. Crop Production

The municipality of Poro is basically an agricultural economy. A total of 4,127 hectares or 60.26 percent of the total land area is devoted to agriculture.

There are four major crops in the area, namely: rice, corn, coconut and fruits. Even the DENR declared timberland is planted to crops.

2. Livestock and Poultry

Livestock-and poultry-raising is carried out mainly as a secondary livelihood of the people.

Total backyard poultry production for 1996 was valued at P 1,190,700. Livestock (swine cattle, goat and carabao) production for the same year was P 46,802,000.

3. Fishery and Aquatic Resources

Camotes Sea provides a good fishing ground for the residents of Poro. Improved fishing methods and mechanization have greatly increased the annual fish production of the marginal fishermen with the 1996 fish catch valued at 42,5M.

4. Forestry and Environment

The DENR has classified a total of 738 hectares as timberland. However, this area is presently under cultivation and planted with coconut and root crops. A total of 722 hectares of the timberland area are considered as upland timberland and 16 hectares as lowland timberland.

However, there are approximately 460 hectares of mangroves which is also declared as protected area. This area is located between Poro and San Francisco . If this area is added to the timberland area, the total would become 1,190 hectares.

B. Commerce and Trade

As of January 1997, the municipality has a total number of 500 sari-sari sores, 5 hardware, 1 gasoline station, 5 warehouses, 3 wholesalers, 30 carenderias, which are evenly distributed throughout the municipality. There is a fish market and a small public in the Poblacion, but no market day as is usually the practice in the rural areas. There is also a public market in Adela.

C. Industry

Light industrial establishments such as small scale ironworks, furniture making, concrete blocks making are operating in the area.

Presently, there are 50 employees in the ironworks industry, 25 in furniture making and 58 in concrete block making.

Likewise, there are 5 commercial corn miller located in Barangay Teguis, Cagcagan, Adela, San Jose and Daan Paz employing 25 people.

Truck and jeep body building in Barangay Esperanza, Teguis and Mabini employ 25 people

A group of women organized themselves and is now producing bags made from romblon and selling them to selected shops on Cebu City .

There is also and egg producing association organized by a US Peace Corps Volunteer which supplies eggs to consumers in the town and in neighboring towns.

A pearl culture company is also operating in the area with two pearl farms in Barangay Mercedes

D. Social Services and Community Development

1. Education
As of June 1997, the municipality of Poro has a total of 6 primary schools, eleven elementary schools, four secondary schools and one college.

In the primary level, Mactang has the highest enrollment with a total of 101 pupils, while Cansabusab has the least enrollment with a total of 30 pupils.

2. Health

The municipality has no hospital but there is an emergency clinic where emergency operations are conducted especially for those who cannot afford the high cost in hospitals. The municipality is currently served by one Rural Health Doctor, one nurse, one Sanitary Inspector and eight midwives. Barangays Libertad, Esperanza, Mercedes, Carcagan, Paz, Adela, San Jose and Daan Paz have health stations and one rural health center in the Poblacion where the Municipal Health Officer is holding office.

There is no regular dentist to serve the dental needs of the residents.

3. Transportation

Transportation facilities in the municipality are inadequate and inconvenient to commuters. Although there are already a number of jeepneys and other means of mass transport, there are no regular routes and trips to and from the Poblacion. The most common mode of transportation is by motorcycle.

Transportation to Cebu City is regular and very comfortable. A fast craft plies the Cebu City – Poro route twice a day, one in the morning and another in the afternoon. Cargo-passenger vessels also ply this route everyday with RORO vessel scheduled every Monday. There also three trips per day to Danao City by pump boats. Ormoc City is also accessed by two pump boats daily.

The municipality's road network consist of the provincial road, municipal road and barangay road with a total length of 105.5 kms. Road width averages 6 meters wide which consequently does not meet the standard.

4. Water

Water resource in the municipality is mainly derived from the municipal water system. The barangays served by this system are Mabini, Eastern and Western Poblacion, Teguis, Pagsa, Mercedes, Esperanza, Carcagan, Adela, Paz, San Jose , Daan Paz and Rizal. A water cooperative serves the water needs of Libertad. Others a served by deepwells and springs.

5. Power

The Camotes electric Cooperative (CELCO) provides power services to the municipality. As of January 1998, 16 barangay are already energized out of a total of 17.

Source: “ Cebu Comprehensive Land Use Plan” - HLURB